Gaze Location Prediction with Depth Features as Auxiliary Information


We present the results of a first experimental study to improve the computation of saliency maps, by using luminance and depth images features. More specifically, we have recorded the center of gaze of users when they were viewing natural scenes. We used machine learning techniques to train a bottom-up, top-down model of saliency based on 2D and depth features/cues. We found that models trained on Itti & Koch and depth features combined outperform models trained on other individual features (i.e. only Gabor filter responses or only depth features), or trained on combination of these features. As a consequence, depth features combined with Itti & Koch features improve the prediction of gaze locations. This first characterization of using joint luminance and depth features is an important step towards developing models of eye movements, which operate well under natural conditions such as those encountered in HCI settings.

Human-Computer Interaction. Advanced Interaction Modalities and Techniques