Foveated rendering adapts the image synthesis process to the user’s gaze. By exploiting the human visual system’s limitations, in particular in terms of reduced acuity in peripheral vision, it strives to deliver high-quality visual experiences at very reduced computational, storage, and transmission costs. Despite the very substantial progress made in the past decades, the solution landscape is still fragmented, and several research problems remain open. In this work, we present an up-to-date integrative view of the domain from the point of view of the rendering methods employed, discussing general characteristics, commonalities, differences, advantages, and limitations. We cover, in particular, techniques based on adaptive resolution, geometric simplification, shading simplification, chromatic degradation, as well spatio-temporal deterioration. Next, we review the main areas where foveated rendering is already in use today. We finally point out relevant research issues and analyze research trends.